Showing posts with label Yokogawa. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Yokogawa. Show all posts

Friday, August 24, 2018

The Perfect Replacement for the Discontinued Moore / Siemens 353 SLC Controller: The Yokogawa YS1700

replacement for the Moore 353
The Siemens / Moore 353 has
faded away. Jump over to the
Yokogawa YS1700.
Siemens has recently discontinued their popular 353 SLC controller (also referred to as the Moore 353. This process controller was very popular and it's discontinuation leaves many companies without a path forward. Now that the entire Moore/Siemens 353 family is obsolete, Siemens/Moore 353 customers have very few options.

Instead of turning to eBay looking for spare parts, Flow-Tech has a better solution for you - the Yokogawa YS1700 PID loop controller. The YS1700 is a drop-in SLC replacement for the Siemens 353.

For more about why the Yokogawa YS1700 is your best alternative, visit this link.

Saturday, July 21, 2018

Yokogawag Real-Time Dynamic Compensation for Static Pressure Effects

DP TransmittersAccurate measurement is vital to efficient plant operation and plant safety. When selecting a transmitter, a lot of attention is paid to the Reference Accuracy noted in supplier's specification documents. Reference Accuracy gets its name because the accuracy is based on a set of reference conditions. The reference conditions dictate a certain temperature, humidity, and static pressure for the Reference Accuracy to be measured in a laboratory setting. In the real world, DP Transmitters are rarely installed in a laboratory and never under the rigid confines of those reference conditions; therefore, Real-world Performance (RWP) is always worse than the Reference Accuracy. To improve RWP, all smart transmitters on the market compensate for variations in temperature; but, Yokogawa's sensor used in the EJA-A series, EJX-A series, and EJX-B series is unique in the market place because it can compensate for effects in static pressure change as well. This ability is referred to
Real-time Dynamic Compensation.

Review the entire document in the embedded viewer below, or download a PDF copy of "Real-Time Dynamic Compensation for Static Pressure Effects" here.

Wednesday, June 27, 2018

New Product Alert: UM33A Digital Indicator with Alarms

UM33A Digital Indicator with Alarms
UM33A Digital Indicator with Alarms
The Yokogawa UM33A is an updated, newly-released digital indicator that can receive, process, and sequentially display data from up to eight process sensors. The enhanced UM33A is an easy to install and cost effective solution that enables the monitoring of data from multiple field sensors.

The previous version UM33A digital indicator was limited to accepting data from a single temperature, pressure, or flow rate sensor. It would then convert that data into digital signals, alarms and visual display. Adding multiple inputs to the older version was expensive as additional equipment was required. Yokogawa redesigned the UM33A to satisfy the needs of customers who want a lower cost, simpler solution to check measurement data from multiple sensors.

The enhanced UM33A supports the master function and the data monitoring function of the Modbus/RTU communication protocol, and is able to connect with up to eight sensors and sequentially display data from those devices. The UM33A is thus able to monitor data from multiple field sensors without requiring the installation and engineering of a separate device with user interface and controller functionality. It can also function alongside already installed systems that employ such specially configured hardware. With its ability to remotely connect with multiple sensors throughout a site, the enhanced UM33A makes it easier for plant personnel to check measurement data from these devices.

In plants, progress is being made in the introduction of field digital solutions that rely on digital communications between intelligent field devices and control systems. Field digital solutions allow the transmission of significantly greater amounts of data, including not only data on process parameters but also instrument status information, and the ability to monitor this information online improves maintenance efficiency. Thanks to its functional enhancements, the enhanced UM33A can handle both digital and analog communications with sensors, and is thus well positioned to facilitate the introduction of field digital solutions at plants.

Intended Markets:
  • Electrical equipment
  • Process equipment
  • Chemical processing applications
  • Food processing applications
  • Semiconductor manufacturing
  • Automobile manufacturing
For more information on the UM33A digital indicator, contact Flow-Tech by visiting https://flowtechonline.com or by calling 804-752-3450 in Virginia.

Saturday, May 26, 2018

Yokogawa EJA-E or EJX-A Series Pressure Transmitter LPS (Local Parameter Setting) Overview

Yokogawa EJA-E
Yokogawa EJA-E
We have all run into this problem one time or another; you're out in the process area when you realized you need to make a change to a transmitter, but your Hand Held Communicator (HHC) is back at the instrument shop! Your HHC is a great device, but it does you no good when it is left back at the shop. However, if you have a Yokogawa EJA-E or EJX-A series pressure transmitter it is not a problem. Yokogawa's Local Parameter Setting (LPS) gives you easy access to nine (9) basic parameters:
  • Tag Number
  • Unit of measure
  • Set LRV (4 mA)
  • Set URV (20 mA)
  • Damping Time
  • Transfer Function (Linear or Square Root)
  • Display
  • Calibrate LRV (Requires applied pressure)
  • Calibrate URV (Requires applied pressure)
The LPS allows you to make changes to the transmitter without actually having a handheld communicator or FieldMate.

Monday, April 9, 2018

What is a Pressure Transmitter?

Differential pressure transmitter
Differential pressure
transmitter (Yokogawa)
A pressure transmitter is a transducer that converts pressure into an electrical signal it outputs both analog and digital signals corresponding to the pressure. A pressure transmitter measures three phenomena: differential pressure; gauge pressure; and absolute pressure. The most common and useful industrial pressure measuring instrument is a differential pressure transmitter. This instrument senses the difference in pressure between two ports and produces an output signal with reference to a calibrated pressure range.

Industrial Applications of Pressure Transmitters

Pressure transmitters are commonly used to measure the pressure inside of industrial machinery or in industrial processes. They are used in various industries such as oil and gas, refining, chemical, pharmacy, and so on.

Pressure Transmitters in Industry

Pressure Transmitters in Industry
Pressure Transmitters in Industry
Pressure transmitters are widely used in industry to measure flow, level, and pressure. There are unlimited industrial applications. Oil and gas flow metering applications are found onshore, offshore and in subsea. It is also often used for monitoring filters in water and effluent treatment plants, monitoring sprinkler systems, and remote sensing of heating systems for steam or hot water. It can monitor pressure drops across valves and can be used to monitor pump control.

Differential Pressure for Flow Measurement

DP flow measurement is one of the most common applications for differential pressure transmitters by measuring the difference in fluid pressure. While the fluid flows through a pipe, it is possible to calculate the flow rate for differential pressure flow measurement. A primary and the secondary element are used. The primary element is designed to produce a difference in pressure as the flow increases. There are many different types of primary element, the most common being the orifice plate, Venturi flow nozzle, and pitot tube. The secondary element is a differential pressure transmitter. It is designed to measure the differential pressure produced by the primary element as accurately as possible. In particular it is important that the differential pressure measurement is not affected by changes in the fluid line pressure, temperature, or other properties such as ambient temperature. A good DP transmitter will ensure that the differential pressure is measured accurately regardless of other changing parameters and will reliably transmit a signal to represent the differential pressure. The DP flow transmitter output signal may also include square root extraction for flow calculation, although it is common for this function to be handled in a control system. In a typical control loop, the transmitter signal is fed to the controller whose output is used to regulate the flow rate through a control valve.

Differential Pressure for Flow Measurement
Differential Pressure for Flow Measurement


Differential Pressure for Level Measurement

Differential pressure transmitters can also be used for tank levels by measuring the pressure. The transmitter is installed at the bottom of the tank whose level is to be detected. In case of a sealed tank, a transmitter with capillaries measures a differential pressure between the upper side and the bottom side. The liquid inside the tank at the bottom creates pressure which is higher than the pressure at the top. The difference in these pressures can be used to calculate the level. In case of an open tank, the transmitter measures the differential pressure between the liquid inside the tank and the reference atmospheric pressure. In a typical control loop, the transmitter signal is fed to the controller whose output is used to regulate the tight level through a control valve.

Differential Pressure for Level Measurement
Differential Pressure for Level Measurement

Wednesday, January 31, 2018

Differential Pressure Level Detectors

Differential Pressure Level
Fig 1. Open Tank Differential Pressure Detector
Click for larger view
The differential pressure (∆P) detector method of liquid level measurement uses a ∆P detector connected to the bottom of the tank being monitored. The higher pressure, caused by the fluid in the tank, is compared to a lower reference pressure (usually atmospheric). This comparison takes place in the ∆P detector. Figure 1 illustrates a typical differential pressure detector attached to an open tank.

The tank is open to the atmosphere; therefore, it is necessary to use only the high pressure (HP) connection on the ∆P transmitter. The low pressure (LP) side is vented to the atmosphere; therefore, the pressure differential is the hydrostatic head, or weight, of the liquid in the tank. The maximum level that can be measured by the ∆P transmitter is determined by the maximum height of liquid above the transmitter. The minimum level that can be measured is determined by the point where the transmitter is connected to the tank.

Differential Pressure Level
Fig. 2 Closed Tank, Dry Reference Leg
Click for larger view
Not all tanks or vessels are open to the atmosphere. Many are totally enclosed to prevent vapors or steam from escaping, or to allow pressurizing the contents of the tank. When measuring the level in a tank that is pressurized, or the level that can become pressurized by vapor pressure from the liquid, both the high pressure and low pressure sides of the ∆P transmitter must be connected (Figure 2).

Differential Pressure Level
Fig 3 Closed Tank, Wet Reference Leg
Click for larger view
The filled reference leg applies a hydrostatic pressure to the high pressure side of the transmitter, which is equal to the maximum level to be measured. The ∆P transmitter is exposed to equal pressure on the high and low pressure sides when the liquid level is at its maximum; therefore, the differential pressure is zero. As the tank level goes down, the pressure applied to the low pressure side goes down also, and the differential pressure increases. As a result, the differential pressure and the transmitter output are inversely proportional to the tank level.

Where the tank contains a condensible fluid, such as steam, a slightly different arrangement is used. In applications with condensible fluids, condensation is greatly increased in the reference leg. To compensate for this effect, the reference leg is filled with the same fluid as the tank. The liquid in the reference leg applies a hydrostatic head to the high pressure side of the transmitter, and the value of this level is constant as long as the reference leg is maintained full. If this pressure remains constant, any change in ∆P is due to a change on the low pressure side of the transmitter (Figure 3).

https://flowtechonline.com
410-666-3200 in Maryland
804-752-3450 in Virginia

Saturday, January 20, 2018

Tank Overfill Protection

Tank Level Control
Tank Level Control Diagram (Yokogawa)
Protecting against tank overfill allows for process control industry professionals to mitigate potential risk to both their processes and process materials. Different products present different risks regarding tank overfill, but the work of preventing overfill is a universal component of safety, procedural effectiveness, and maximization of resources. If tank overfill does occur, a number of potential negative outcomes could result, especially in the cases of wastewater, chemicals, and petroleum products. Everyone, from management to methodology, needs to be working from the same ideal regarding safety as an inherent priority of process control.

Instead of solely focusing on tank overfill prevention, many corporations have developed written instructions for every individual operator in an organization. Not only do these standards adhere to regulations, but they also meet environmental standards while eliminating accident risk. Six Sigma is an example of data-driven management meant to eliminate potential defects in safety procedures. The idea of pursuing perfection in all components of an organization may originally seem far away from overfill protection. However, previous attempts to confront tank overfill without consideration for the larger organization narrowed operational windows to only consider one part of the system.

Expanding this system to include root causes of overfill prevention instead of solely the mechanisms for prevention has resulted in a more holistic approach to the integration of safety standards. Regulatory requirements for tank metrics, how to operate aboveground versus below ground tanks, and process material specific guidelines are combined with internal company codes. Those two elements are then fused with the Recognized and Generally Accepted Good Engineering Practices which are developed by industry associations. The tri-part approach has resulted in a more collaborative effort to combat tank overfill problems.

One metric employed to prevent tank overfill-related dangers is to measure whether or not the tank in question has the appropriate room to accommodate abnormal process behavior. Considerations such as these mesh with evaluations of pipe size and whether or tanks need to be connected to relief tanks. Assessment of both operational and insurance risk means the entirety of the process must be understood and evaluated so that the interaction between the process materials can be predicted and then mitigated. Whether these components are raw materials, system components, or final products in the latter stages of the process, automated systems combined with operator diligence based on established methodology is the best way to prevent overfill and associated dangers.

To discuss your tank level control and overfill requirements, contact Flow-Tech at https://www.flowtechonline.com or call 410-666-3200 in Maryland, or 804-752-3450 in Virginia.

Wednesday, December 20, 2017

Yokogawa Pressure eBook - A Basic Guide to Understanding Pressure

The impact of pressure on industrial processes would be difficult to understate. Pressure is an element of process control that can affect performance and safety. Understanding pressure concepts and how to effectively measure pressure within a process are key to any operator's success.

Yokogawa, a globally recognized leader in process measurement and control, has made available a handbook on pressure that covers a range of useful topics. The content starts with the very basic concepts and moves quickly to practical subjects related to process measurement and control.

The handbook will prove useful to readers at all levels of expertise. Share your process measurement challenges with application specialists, combining your process knowledge with their product application expertise to develop effective solutions.

Download your own copy of the Pressure Handbook here, or view online below.

Tuesday, September 12, 2017

ADMAG TI Series AXW Magnetic Flowmeter Maintenance Manual

ADMAG TI Series AXW Magnetic Flowmeter
ADMAG AXW Magnetic Flowmeter
(Yokogawa)
The ADMAG AXW™ series of magnetic flow meters has been developed based on Yokogawa's decades-long experience in Magnetic Flowmeters. The AXW series continues the tradition of high quality and reliability that has become synonymous with the Yokogawa name.

The AXW series is ideal for industrial process lines, and water supply / sewage applications. With outstanding reliability and ease of operation, developed on decades of field-proven experience, the AXW will increase user benefits while reducing total cost of ownership.

Sizes are available from 500 to 1800 mm (20 to 72 inch.) with a wide liner selection such as PTFE, Natural hard rubber, Natural soft rubber, and Polyurethane rubber lining. Offering industry standard process connections such as ASME, AWWA, EN, JIS, and AS flange standards. A submersible version is also available.

This manual provides the basic guidelines for maintenance procedures of ADMAG TI (Total Insight) Series AXW magnetic  flowmeters.

In Virginia, contact Flow-Tech for any Yokogawa instrument requirement you may have. Call 804-752-3450 or visit http://www.flowtechonline.com.

Sunday, July 9, 2017

The Yokogawa TDLS8000 Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer

TDLS8000
The Yokogawa TDLS8000
The Yokogawa TDLS8000 can quickly make in-situ measurements of gas concentrations in combustion and heating processes that are employed in the oil, petrochemical, electric power, iron and steel, and other industries.

Companies are always looking for ways to optimize processes by saving energy, reducing CO2 emissions, and improving safety and one way to do this is by optimizing the air-fuel ratio in the combustion process. To accomplish this, sensors are needed that can continuously monitor the concentration of O2 and CO+CH4 in the radiant section of fired heaters.

Product Features

  1. Highly reliable measurement - The TDLS8000's laser module includes a newly developed reference cell board that improves the reliability of absorption peak detection, which is an important step in the spectral area method. In addition, the receiving unit employs a new auto gain function that can automatically optimize detection sensitivity depending on the measurement object. By increasing the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio), this improves the reliability of measurements taken in coal combustion and other processes where there is high particulate loading. Designed to meet the requirements for SIL2 certification (certification pending) defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the TDLS8000 will play a key support role in ensuring the safe operation of plants.
  2. Improved operability and maintenance efficiency - The TDLS8000 comes with a large 7.5-inch LCD touch screen that can display a greater variety of data. The touch screen replaces the push button interface used with preceding models, making the setting of parameters easier and more intuitive. The light source module containing the laser diode is fully sealed and damage resistant. To facilitate troubleshooting and reduce downtime, this module is able to store up to 50 days' worth of raw data that can be accessed anywhere in the world by, for example, a Yokogawa response center.
  3. Compact size - The redesigned TDLS8000 is just three-quarters the size and weight of the preceding model, allowing it to be installed in a greater variety of locations.

Friday, June 9, 2017

Yokogawa ROTAMASS "Total Insight" Line of Coriolis Flowmeters

ROTAMASS InsightIn the last decade, the use of Coriolis flow meters has been changing from general purpose to supporting your needs in specific applications.

While the technological complexity increased, the demand for simple operation and handling is also a rising requirement.

Yokogawa answers these needs by offering six dedicated product lines with two specialized transmitters allowing the highest flexibility - the ROTAMASS Total Insight.

Total Insight


The ROTAMASS philosophy gives Total Insight throughout the whole lifecycle.

To facilitate optimal processes and increase the efficiency of personnel, Yokogawa has placed a strong focus on simplifying fundamental operating concepts with Total Insight. The Total Insight concept is built in to the latest generation of Rotamass transmitters and provide enhanced settings for customized setups, pre-defined trend views, or multiple configuration sets for fast changeover in batch production are supported.

ROTAMASS NanoROTAMASS NANO - When every drop counts
The world's smallest dual bent tube Coriolis flow meter series for highly accurate measurement at lowest flows.
The dual tube design compensates for fluctuations of density, temperature, pressure and environment conditions. This provides a consistent repeatable and accurate measurement especially for small size Coriolis flow meters.
  • Typical Applications
    • Batching
    • Dosing
    • Blending
    • Chemical injection
    • Dosing systems
    • High pressure gases
    • Liquid and gas low flow measurement
    • Precision coatings
    • Metering pump control
    • Metrology
    • R&D laboratory
    • Vacuum thin film coating
ROTAMASS PrimeROTAMASS Prime - Versatile in applications
The favorably priced and versatile Coriolis flow meter with lowest pressure drop in the market. Ideal for a broad range of standard applications, this series is a flexible and cost effective solution for highly accurate flow and density measurements.
Features such as concentration measurement or the Tube Health Check function allow the meter to be adjusted to customer needs.
  • Typical Applications
    • Batching
    • Blending
    • Chemical recovery
    • Continuous reaction
    • In-line concentration and density measurement
    • Catalyst feed
    • Filling and dosing
    • Mass balance
    • Net oil computing
    • Palm oil
    • Process control
ROTAMASS SupremeROTAMASS Supreme - Experience meets innovation
The most accurate Coriolis flow meter with industry’s best zero stability.
The successful Rotamass series has been progressively developed and is also newly equipped with the latest technology. This meter delivers unsurpassed performance for demanding and critical applications with superior aeration handling and advanced diagnostic functionality.
  • Typical Applications
    • Batching
    • Burner control
    • Feed and product control
    • Filling and dosing
    • Gas void fraction
    • In-line concentration and density
    • Loss control
    • Material and mass balance
    • Net oil computing
    • Process control
    • Solvents
    • Water cut
ROTAMASS IntenseROTAMASS Intense - Safe under high pressure
The Coriolis meter with the most robust and durable design for precise measurement in high pressure applications.
Safety is always a concern and especially when operating at high pressures. Therefore, this series has been designed to meet the highest safety requirements. Combined with advanced diagnosis such as the “Total Health Check” function, operation is always under secure control.
  • Typical Applications
    • Chemical injection
    • Compressed gases
    • Fuels
    • Glycol TEG/MEG
    • High pressure gases
    • Hydraulic oil
    • Hydrocarbons
    • Liquified gases
    • Natural gas hydration
    • Offshore and onshore
    • Oil refinery processes
    • Solvents
ROTAMASS HygienicROTAMASS Hygienic - With pure dedication
Specifically designed and certified for food & beverage, biotechnology and pharmaceutical utility applications.
This series is the appropriate answer to the daily constraints of hygienic processes ensuring continuous product quality and minimizing losses. This is made easy by the provided multi-variable measurement and various dedicated features.
  • Typical Applications
    • Bioreactor feeds
    • Bottling
    • Carbonation of beverages
    • Deionized water
    • Fermentation
    • Juice processing
    • Molasses measurement
    • Online sugar concentration
    • Raw milk tanker unloading
    • Process water reclamation
    • Product quality control
    • Sugar industry
ROTAMASS GigaROTAMASS Giga - Big in performance
Delivering best in class accuracy and most flexible installation at high flow rates.
The unmatched accuracy at the low end of the measuring range offers maximum flexibility from engineering to final operation. This series unifies a long service life with low maintenance costs and reliable performance.
  • Typical Applications
    • Bitumen
    • Distribution networks
    • Drilling mud
    • LNG
    • Rail car loading
    • Ship loading
    • Truck loading
    • Tar
    • Offshore and onshore
    • Oil well cementing and hydrofracturing
Essential and Ultimate Transmitters

Future Ready. The ROTAMASS TI product family has a common and unified transmitter platform with two options that provide the highest flexibility and a tailor-made solution. The Essential transmitter is the cost effective solution for general purpose applications, and the Ultimate transmitter provides various additional features for best-in-class measurement.
Essential TransmitterEssential Transmitter
  • Wizard for easy setup and guidance through the main configuration
  • “Event Management” as unique and useful support to run the process effectively and safely
  • Data mobility provided by microSD card for easy transfer to other devices for fast setup or to pc for in-depth process analysis or remote service
  • Widest range of I/O combinations in the market for most flexible adjustment to the existing system periphery
  • Universal power supply to install the device anywhere in the world
  • HART communication
Ultamate TransmitterUltimate Transmitter
  • Patented “Tube Integrity” function and “TotalHealth Check” for inline meter verification without disturbing running measurements
  • “Features on demand” for easy expansion of special functions via software activation key
  • Batching function combined with multiple configuration sets to support fast changeover
  • “Dynamic Pressure Compensation” for consistently accurate and stable measurement even with significant fluctuations in operating pressures
  • Inline concentration measurement
  • Integrated net oil computing acc. API standard
For more information on ROTAMASS Total Insight in Virginia, visit http://www.flowtechonline.com or call 804-752-3450.

Thursday, March 30, 2017

Steam Boiler Optimization

Steam Boiler Optimization
The primary function of a utility boiler is to convert water into steam to be used by a steam turbine/ generator in producing electricity. The boiler consists of a furnace, where air and fuel are combined and burned to produce combustion gases, and a feedwater tube system, the contents of which are heated by these gases. The tubes are connected to the steam drum, where the generated water vapor is drawn. In larger utility boilers, if superheated steam (low vapor saturation) is to be generated, the steam through the drum is passed through superheated tubes, which are also exposed to combustion gases. Boiler drum pressures can reach 2800 psi with temperatures over 680°F. Small to intermediate size boilers can reach drum pressures between 800 and 900 psi at temperatures of only 520°F if superheated steam is desired. Small to intermediate size boilers are only being considered for this application note.

With oil‐burning and gas‐burning boiler efficiencies over 90%, power plants are examining all associated processes and controls for efficiency improvements. Between 1 and 3% of the gross work produced by a boiler is used to pump feedwater. One method of improving overall efficiency is by controlling feedwater pump speed to save on pump power.

Read the entire document below. Contact  Flow-Tech with any questions regarding boiler optimization. In Maryland call 410-666-3200. In Virginia call 804-752-3450. 

Tuesday, March 21, 2017

Industrial Temperature Control Basics

Process Controllers
Process Controllers used with thermocouples or RTDs
for temperature control (courtesy of Yokogawa)
The regulation of temperature is a common operation throughout many facets of modern life. Environmental control in commercial, industrial, and institutional buildings, even residential spaces, uses the regulation of temperature as the primary measure of successful operation. There are also countless applications for the control of temperature found throughout manufacturing, processing, and research. Everywhere that temperature needs to be regulated, a device or method is needed that will control the delivery of a heating or cooling means.

For industrial process applications, the temperature control function is found in two basic forms. It can reside as an operational feature within a programmable logic controller or other centralized process control device or system. Another form is a standalone process temperature controller, with self-contained input, output, processing, and user interface. Depending upon the needs of the application, one may have an advantage over the other. The evolution of both forms, integrated and standalone, has resulted in each offering consistently greater levels of functionality.

There are two basic means of temperature control, regardless of the actual device used. Open loop control delivers a predetermined amount of output action without regard to the process condition. Its simplicity makes open loop control economical. Best applications for this type of control action are processes that are well understood and that can tolerate a potentially wide variation in temperature. A change in the process condition will not be detected, or responded to, by open loop control. The second temperature control method, and the one most employed for industrial process control, is closed loop.

Closed loop control relies on an input that represents the process condition, an algorithm or internal mechanical means to produce an output action related to the process condition, and some type of output device that delivers the output action. Closed loop controllers require less process knowledge on the part of the operator than open loop to regulate temperature. The controllers rely on the internal processing and comparison of input (process temperature) to a setpoint value. The difference between the two is the deviation or error.  Generally, a greater error will produce a greater change in the output of the controller, delivering more heating or cooling to the process and driving the process temperature toward the setpoint.

The current product offering for standalone closed loop temperature controllers ranges from very simple on/off regulators to highly developed products with multiple inputs and outputs, as well as many auxiliary functions and communications. The range of product features almost assures a unit is available for every application. Evaluating the staggering range of products available and producing a good match between process requirements and product capabilities can be facilitated by reaching out to a process control products specialist. Combine your own process knowledge and experience with their product application expertise to develop effective solution options.

Wednesday, March 15, 2017

Combustion and Fired Heater E-Book

[All quoted passages in this article are taken from the Yokogawa e-book]

Yokogawa, globally recognized leader in a number of process control fields, has authored an e-book which provides useful insight into how operators of combustion based equipment and systems can improve efficiency and enhance safety by employing modern technology.

The Yokogawa e-book Combustion & Fired Heater Optimization offers "an analytical approach to improving safe & efficient operations" related to the use of combustion & fired heaters in the process industries. Through presenting an overview of combustion sources, such as furnaces and fired heaters, the book states that while "fired heaters pose a series of problems from safety risks to poor energy efficiency," those problems "represent an opportunity for improved safety, control, energy efficiency and environmental compliance." Fired heaters "account for 37% of the U.S. manufacturing energy end use." Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer (TDLS) technology helps mitigate safety concerns by "measuring average gas concentrations across the high temperature radiant sections."

The book states that the four main concerns applicable to fired heaters are asset sustainability, inefficient operations, the operator skillset, and safety and compliance. Outdated diagnostics and controls have placed unnecessary stress on operator response, making sustainability of fired heaters difficult. The emissions of fired heaters are generally higher than designed, and can be coupled with control schemes for firing rates little changed over the past 40 years. Operators, generally, lack a clear understanding of design, and even engineering principles of heat transfer are not typically included in education related to fired heaters. Confounding the situation further, "many natural draft heaters do not meet this [safety regulation] guideline with existing instrumentation and control systems." These complications combine to form a noticeable problem Yokogawa's technology hopes to address. The company notes how the fired heater relies on natural draft instead of forced air, meaning the heaters "typically lack the degree of automation applied to other process units in the plant." Offering a full detail of both the control state of most fired heaters and their systems defines the process situation currently considered common in the field, while emphasizing high excess air as providing a "false sense of safety."

The proposed TDLS system allows for the measurement of "both the upper and lower conditions in a fired heater" by "simultaneously controlling the fuel and air supply based on fast sample intervals." Safer burner monitoring and heater efficiency results from the TDLS measurements of CO, CH4, and O2. The optimization of air flow control reduces "O2 concentration … from 6% to 2%" and increases the furnace's thermal efficiency. Combustion control is achieved by managing fuel flow and the arch draft. The TDLS integrated system works in tandem with already established logic solver systems in the plant. The TDLS technology works as a non-contacting measurement with "full diagnostic capability" and offers "distinct advantages over single point in situ analyzers" via reduction of false readings. Specific gas measurements, fast response time, optical measurement technology, and "high and variable light obstruction" are featured components of the TDLS system highlighted to show the technology's durability and flexibility. The longevity and reliability of the system is showcased by how the TDLS combustion management system has been operational in a major refinery since 2010. The percentage of excess O2 in sample fired heaters has decreased by 1% to 1.5%. Measurements by the TDLS system have been verified by other gas analyzers. The furnace conditions in the plant are more efficiently monitored and controlled. As a result, the furnace in the functional environment is "now near its optimum operating point, using minimum excess air."
Yokogawa presents a process-related problem, then details the key points of the problem while unpacking the causes. The e-book introduces Yokogawa's technology, explains the mechanics, and demonstrates how TDLS acts as a solution to the problem, supported by a tangible example. The book offers great insight for both the operational principles of fired heaters and a new technology designed to maximize efficiency in the control process.

The e-book can be downloaded here.  More detail is available from product application specialists, with whom you should share your combustion and fired heater related challenges. Combining your own facilities and process knowledge and experience with their product application expertise will lead to effective solutions.

Monday, January 30, 2017

Operating Principles and Application of Vortex Flowmeters

vortex flowmeter
Vortex flowmeter
(courtesy of Yokogawa)
To an untrained ear, the term "vortex flowmeter" may conjure futuristic, potentially Star Wars inspired images of a hugely advanced machine meant for opening channels in warp-space. In reality, vortex flowmeters are application specific, industrial grade instruments designed to measure what may be the most important element of a fluid process control operation: flow rate.

Vortex flowmeters operate based on a scientific principle called the von Karman effect, which generally states that a fluid flow will alternately shed vortices when passing by a solid body. "Vortices" is the plural form of vortex, which is best described as a whirling mass, notably one in which suction forces operate, such as a whirlpool. Detecting the presence of the vortices and determining the frequency of their occurrence is used to provide an indication of fluid velocity. The velocity value can be combined with temperature, pressure, or density information to develop a mass flow calculation. Vortex flowmeters are reliable, with no moving parts, serving as a useful tool in the measurement of liquid, gas, and steam flow.

While different fluids present unique challenges when applying flowmeters, stream is considered one of the more difficult to measure due to its pressure, temperature, and potential mixture of liquid and vapor in the same line. Multiple types of steam, including wet steam, saturated steam, and superheated steam, are utilized in process plants and commercial installations, and are often related to power or heat transfer. Several of the currently available flow measurement technologies are not well suited for steam flow applications, leaving vortex flowmeters as something of a keystone in steam flow measurement.

Vortex flowmeter
Vortex flowmeter
(courtesy of Yokogawa)
Rangeability, defined as a ratio of maximum to minimum flow, is an important consideration for any measurement instrument, indicating its ability to measure over a range of conditions. Vortex flowmeter instruments generally exhibit wide rangeability, one of the positive aspects of the technology and vortex based instruments.

The advantages of the vortex flowmeter, in addition to the aforementioned rangeability and steam-specific implementation, include available accuracy of 1%, a linear output, and a lack of moving parts. It is necessary for the pipe containing the measured fluid to be completely filled in order to obtain useful measurements.

Applications where the technology may face hurdles include flows of slurries or high viscosity liquids. These can prove unsuitable for measurement by the vortex flowmeter because they may not exhibit a suitable degree of the von Karman effect to facilitate accurate measurement. Flow measurements can be adversely impacted by pulsating flow, where differences in pressure from the relationship between two or more compressors or pumps in a system results in irregular fluid flow.

When properly applied, the vortex flowmeter is a reliable and low maintenance tool for measuring fluid flow. Frequently, vortex flow velocity measurement will be incorporated with the measurement of temperature and pressure in an instrument referred to as a multivariable flowmeter, used to develop a complete measurement set for calculating mass flow.

Whatever your flow measurement challenges, share them with a flow instrument specialist, combining your process knowledge with their product and technology expertise to develop effective solutions.

Wednesday, November 9, 2016

Box-In-Box Coriolis Flow Meter Design Explained



Yokogawa, manufacturer of the Rotomass Coriolis Flow Meter utilizing the patented "box-in-box" design, has produced a short video explaining how their design counteracts some of the environmental and process piping conditions that can negatively impact measurement of fluid flow. On Coriolis type flow instruments, conditions that apply stress to the sensor tube assembly can change the resonant frequency of the assembly, impacting the measured reading. The Yokogawa design employs a means to minimize or eliminate their effect, maintaining accurate measurement of flow in process piping.

Share your flow measurement challenges and requirements with product application specialists, combining your process knowledge with their application expertise to develop effective solutions.

Wednesday, October 26, 2016

Industrial Process Gas Chromatograph With Parallel Processing

industrial process gas chromatograph parallel processing
GC8000 Process Gas Chromatograph
Yokogawa
Gas chromatography is a common analysis tool employed in many areas of the process control industry, including oil and gas, pharmaceutical, chemical, and others. Yokogawa Corporation of America developed instrumentation to provide top tier GC performance with their GC8000 Process Gas Chromatograph for use in oil and gas, and other industrial applications.

In addition to the ruggedness and reliability for which Yokogawa gas chromatographs are well known, the GC8000 brings a number of innovations and improvements to the company’s process gas chromatography product offering.
  • Color touchscreen HMI for easy operation
  • Advanced predictive diagnostics and software functions monitor key performance indicators during each analysis to verify analyzer is operating within proper tolerances.
  • Parallel chromatography enabled through the use of GC Modules provided as part of the GC8000. Virtual GCs can be set up inside a single GC with GC Modules to measure multiple streams simultaneously.
The graphics below expand on this overview of the GC8000 Process Gas Chromatograph, the culmination of Yokogawa’s 55 years of experience in the field. For more detailed information, or to discuss your application specifics, contact a product specialist.


Monday, August 22, 2016

Measuring pH and ORP eBook

Get your copy of this 72 page
eBook (courtesy of Yokogawa)

Measuring pH/ORP is very common, but taking true measurements and correct interpretation of the results is not self-evident. Certain effects can potentially cause problems if not taken into consideration.

The purpose of this book is to provide a comprehensive understanding of pH/ORP measurement and how to achieve reliable results. Basic information on the principles of measuring pH/ORP, the construction of the sensing elements and their basic use in process applications are provided.

A part of achieving accurate and reliable pH/ORP measurements requires sufficient and correct maintenance and storage conditions. Prevention of common errors during maintenance and storage, as well as consistent detection of loop failures is important. This book describes how these can be avoided and how failures can be detected.

This book is accompanied with a frequently asked question and answer section as well as an appendix that includes helpful information like a Chemical Compatibility Table and a Liquid-Application-Data-Sheet, which can be used to describe the user’s application.

Tuesday, July 19, 2016

Practical Issues of Combustion Oxygen Measurement Specifically Related to NOx Emissions

NOx emissions
Power plants and NOx emissions.
Power plants concerned with lowering NOx emissions are making tremendous changes to accommodate EPA regulatory requirements. A substantial number of these changes include the expansion and upgrade of the plant combustion oxygen measurement equipment. There is a striking relationship between the number of NOx reductions projects and the sales quantity of insitu oxygen detectors. The reason is that power plant betterment groups, operators, boiler manufacturers and engineering firms understand the direct relationship between NOx and excess air in the combustion process.

An area of daily practical importance to boiler operators and I&C teams are the common problems with insitu oxygen measurements. This paper focuses on the practical issues of combustion oxygen measurement as they relate to specifically to fuel usage and NOx emissions.

Read the entire white paper, courtesy of Yokogawa Corporation of America below:

Tuesday, May 31, 2016

The Coriolis Effect Simply Explained. And Then Not So Simply Explained.

This video very simply (and very elegantly) demonstrates the Coriolis Force through the use of a ordinary garden hose.




An Now the Not So Simple Explanation

This force occurs, when the medium being measured is flowing at velocity ν through a tube that is rotating around an axis perpendicular to the direction of flow at angular ϖ.
coriolis force

When the medium moves away from the axis of rotation it must be accelerated to an increasingly high peripheral velocity. The force required for this is called Coriolis force, after its discoverer. The Coriolis force reduces the rotation. The opposite effect occurs, when the medium flows towards the axis of rotation. Then the Coriolis force amplifies the rotation.

The formula for the Coriolis force is as follows:
coriolis force

The entire measurement tube is deformed slightly by the Coriolis forces, in the way shown. This deformation is registered by movement sensors at points S1 and S2 .

For practical exploitation of this physical principle, it is sufficient for the tube to perform sympathetic oscillations on a small section of a circular path. This is achieved by exciting the measurement tube at point E by means of an electromagnetic exciter.

Coriolis flowmeters use the oscillating movement of two symmetric metal tubes that are made to vibrate from an internal driver coil.  When liquids or gases flow through the tubes, a phase shift occurs (like you see in the hose) and pickups measure the “twist” and then relate that value to the actual flow. In other words, the amount of twist is proportional to the mass flow rate of fluid passing through the tubes. The greater the twist, the larger the distance between, and the greater the flow.


The general construction of a Coriolis mass flowmeter looks like the following:
Coriolis flowmeter
Coriolis flowmeter diagram (Yokogawa)